EC project "Review of Historical Seismicity in Europe" (RHISE) 1989-1993

[Deliverables and queries] [Presentation] [Homepage]

Nicholas N. Ambraseys* and Caroline Finkel*
* Department of Civil Engineering, Imperial College of Science & Technology, London SW7 2BU, UK.

Material for the Investigation of the Seismicity
of the Eastern Mediterranean Region
during the period 1690-1710

In order both to gain an understanding of the tectonics of an area and for seismic hazard evaluation, it is important to extend our knowledge about the earthquakes which occurred there as far back in time as possible. This paper draws on previously unpublished historical sources, supplemented by the re-examination of published but not readily accessible documents, to investigate the seismicity of the Eastern Mediterranean region during the period 1690 to 1710 (Fig. 1). It aims in particular at the investigation of a number of important but little-known earthquakes in the region.
In what follows we present the results of our investigation and show the procedure followed that allowed the identification of a considerable number of hitherto unknown earthquakes in this region. Both occidental and oriental sources containing useful data about earthquakes during the years under consideration have been identified, particularly Venetian, Turkish, and to a lesser extent Slavonic, Arabic, and Armenian, but not Greek.
At present very little is known in any detail about the seismicity of the Eastern Mediterranean region during this relatively late period of its history. Of the 47 events identified in this paper, only a small fraction are listed in earthquake catalogues and for most of these the information given is fragmentary and incomplete. For instance, almost nothing is known about the seismic activity of the region of Negreponte (Chalkis), northeast of Athens, a region associated with active tectonics today. Similarly obscure are the facts about the earthquake in Athens at the turn of the seventeenth century, the only earthquake alleged to have caused damage to the city during its long history. Nothing is known about the earthquake of 1705 in the Bekaa valley in Lebanon, the site of earlier and later destructive earthquakes (Ambraseys & Melville, 1988; Ambraseys, 1989; Ambraseys & Barazangi, 1989).

Fig. 1 - Eastern Mediterranean region showing the location of the earthquakes identified for the period 1690 to 1710. Numbers refer to the entries in case histories.

The short time-period and wide area over which this study has been carried out were selected with the aims of (a) achieving as complete a retrieval of information as possible around the time and location of the larger earthquakes under investigation (b) demonstrating the importance of utilising information derived from disparate sources, and indicating how well documents in different languages complement each other, and (c) showing how much new information about the seismicity of the region can be found, even for this short period of observation of two decades.
The reasons for choosing such a large area (Fig. 1) are, first, that we need to be aware of the extent of earthquake activity during the period of our observations - we must look, therefore, not only for near, destructive shocks but also beyond the immediate vicinity of an affected area for large earthquakes that could have easily caused damage at large epicentral distances. Secondly, we must assess how adequate our sources of information are, whether they provide us with information continuously, or only at certain periods.

The area under consideration is roughly co-terminus with that of the Ottoman Empire during the years of the turn of the seventeenth century. While we find sources in various languages for the parts of the Empire where these were current, for instance Venetian in the Morea, and Armenian in Eastern Anatolia, a greater degree of spatial continuity than is in fact encountered might be anticipated in the case of Ottoman sources.
The Ottoman archival documents utilised here come, mostly, from the voluminous registers of the financial bureaux of the central government. The procedure followed when earthquake damage occurred was that an initial report was sent to Istanbul by local bodies, upon receipt of which a detailed estimate of the extent of the damage and the cost of repairs was ordered, and officials were appointed to oversee the work. After further exchanges between officials in the area damaged by the earthquake and Istanbul, during which estimates could be reassessed, pared down, and other necessary building works ordered to be carried out, the earthquake damage was repaired, sometimes several years after it had occurred.

The areas best documented in Ottoman sources during these years are Greece, which was the site of Ottoman-Venetian hostilities during the period of study, and the eastern Adriatic region, which did not escape the consequences of warfare with the Sacra Lega powers in the 1690s. Repairs to damaged fortresses were thus urgent, and this may go part of the way to explain why there are more documents relating to these areas than to others. By contrast, the several earthquakes in Eastern Anatolia which are not listed here and which are recorded in Armenian marginal notes appear to go unrecorded in Ottoman archival sources, as do a number of other events for which we have non-Ottoman source material - maybe their repair was not considered urgent, or was paid for from local sources. As a rule, we may say that earthquakes are only recorded in the registers of the fisc if money was sought from central funds.
It may be that with time the body of material retrieved here will be enlarged. However, although the number of fiscal registers for this period is substantial, it appears that most of those in which information on earthquakes may possibly be found have survived. Given that correspondence between local bodies and the Porte concerning any one event produced a number of documents, and we see below that we have usually been able to trace more than one of such documents for each event, it is unlikely that much new material concerning the earthquakes of this period will come to light in sources of the type utilised here. Local sources, such as the registers of the cadi's courts may, nevertheless, yield further data.

The Ottoman documents relating to earthquake repairs are not without internal problems. As becomes clear below, particular in relation to the Egriboz earthquake of 1694, it can be hard to isolate the earthquake-related element in a schedule of the cost of repairs: as the execution of such was delayed, other necessary repairs were carried out at the same time. So, too, the date of an earthquake is only rarely given in Ottoman documents, which demonstrates the necessity of collating Ottoman materials with those in other languages; below, dates written in italics are those of the cited document itself where it has not been possible to precisely date an event from the information to hand.

Case histories In what follows we present the data retrieved for earthquakes during the period 1690 to 1710 over the region shown in Fig. 1. Costs of repairs given in Ottoman gurus may be reckoned at an approximate rate of 1 gurus to 5 English shillings in 1700; s.a. indicates sub annum. The dates of earthquakes whose occurrence is uncertain are shown in italics. This material forms a part of a more general study to be published in the Istanbuler Mittheilungen.

1) 1690 Jan. 7
A widely-felt earthquake in Transylvania was particularly strong at Sighisoara and Brasov (Rethly, 1952,s.a.).

2) 1690 Jan. 13
A damaging earthquake in Smyrna (Izmir) and adjacent regions. Not a single house was left undamaged along that coast (Theatrum Europaeum, 1698; Beer, 1709, p. 293). Further inland the effects of the shock were more serious, but details are lacking.

3) 1690 Jul. 11
A damaging earthquake in Istanbul. It damaged some domes of the Fatih mosque and destroyed part of the Topkapi gate and adjacent parts of the city walls (Rasid, 1282 [1865], 2, p. 122; IEN, 89), together with a number of houses, killing 20 people (Bonito, 1691). The earthquake is described as a major event (al-Umari, c. 219v). However, the absence of information from other towns suggests the possibility that this was a local shock with an epicentre offshore Istanbul. Aftershocks continued to be felt for several days.

4) 1692 Nov. 9

A strong earthquake was reported from Nagyajta, north of Brasov in Romania (Rethly, 1952, s.a.).

5) 1693 Jan. 9
A strong earthquake was reported from Cefalonia in the Ionian Islands, with no further details (Tsitselis, 1960). We know, however, that this earthquake originated outside our area, in fact offshore Siracuse in Sicily, and that it was felt over a large area (Baratta, 1901).

6) 1693 Oct. 2
An earthquake was reported from Brasov, Rumania (Rethly, 1952, s.a.

7) 1693-94
An earthquake, specified in a document as having occurred in 1105 A.H. [2 Sep. 1693 - 21 Aug. 1694], damaged the castle of Kamengrad in Bosnia in Jugoslavia. A section of the castle wall from the gate to the treasury tower, which was already damaged, was ruined (MMD 3992.130; MMD 9879.154). We have no other information about this event which occurred in the region between Banja Luka and Bihac.

8) 1694 Mar. 5
About three o'clock in the night there was a violent shock at Smyrna (Izmir) which was followed by strong aftershocks for three days (Careri, 1704). The earthquake was also felt very strongly in the island of Chios (Argentis & Kyriakides, 1946). There is no evidence that the shocks caused any serious damage.

9) 1694 Jun. ?
From a brief newspaper notice, dated August 1694, we learn that in July 1694 in Sicily, and at the same time in Greece, there was an earthquake that destroyed the bastion of Negreponte (Egriboz in Turkey, modern Chalkis). This information is repeated by Perrey (1850), Mallet (1853), Schmidt (1867b) and other cataloguers. This press notice obviously refers to two distinct events - to an earthquake on 6 Jul. 1694, that we know caused considerable damage in Mantova in Italy (Boccone, 1697), and to a separate, earlier shock that affected Negreponte in Greece before August. A later issue of the same newspaper, which refers specifically to the Negreponte earthquake, says that this was quite a large event that destroyed a curtain of the fort (Anonymous, 1694b).
More information about this earthquake in Greece is to be found in another news-item, published in the September 1694 issue of the Lettres Historiques. It says "... an important earthquake occurred throughout the island of Negrepont and ... the fortifications of the city of the same name were entirely overthrown. The Venetians, taking advantage of the situation, contemplate laying siege to this place" (Anonymous, 1694a). The date of the event is not given.
In mid-1694, the town and castle of Negreponte were in Ottoman hands. Six years earlier, between July and October 1688, the castle of Negreponte as well as the fort of Kara Baba, which is located on the mainland opposite the castle, were damaged and their walls breached during siege by the Venetians (Garzoni, 1705, p. 260). Soon after the siege however, by the end of 1688, these castles were repaired by the Turks and their garrisons strengthened (Sathas, 1869, p. 382). The information in the European press therefore refers to damage related to an earthquake that must have taken place before the middle of 1694. Contemporary historians also confirm the information in the European press that in the autumn of 1693, and also in the summer of 1694, the Venetians were again contemplating laying siege to Negreponte: such plans were in both instances abandoned because of the superior power of the opponents (Locatelli, 1705, s.a.; Garzoni, 1705, p. 264).
Damage to Negreponte caused by an earthquake is evidenced in an order from the Ottoman fisc to Vezir Ismail Pasha, who was charged with the defence of the place; this document, which is dated 16 Dhu'l-Hijja 1112 A.H. [23 May 1701], and is the earliest so far located of the series which refers to earthquake damage at Negreponte in these years, gives precise details regarding the costs of the materials required to repair the damage sustained, whose extent is described thus: "... 35 cubits of the castle wall adjoining the armoury outside the Yali Gate of Egriboz castle, which is opposite Kara Baba, is demolished in an earthquake; and near to this, part of the corner wall and part of the castle wall near to the Mansur Tower, which is near the upper gate, is demolished; again, in these places some parts have cracked from dryness (?) and need repair; (thus) 32x3x18=1728 sq.cubits of the castle wall will be repaired and built from the foundations up, and the demolished area of the castle wall outside the Yali Gate 6x10x5=300 sq.cubits, and from the foundations up, the demolished castle wall near the Mansur Tower, 14x112x1.5=252 sq.cubits, and the cracked (?) wall in the same place, 10x7x1.5=105 sq.cubits, which is 2385 sq.cubits in total ...". It is also noted in this document that the total cost of repairs, assessed locally but accepted by the Porte, is put at 189,420 akce/1,578 gurus (MMD 3134.450).
Other relevant documents confuse rather than clarify: a schedule dated 17 Dhu'l-Hijja 1115 [22 Apr. 1704] specifies the dimensions of each area of damage and the related cost of repair, for a total cost of 1,829,093 akce/15,242 gurus - but the damage is not ascribed to an earthquake nor, indeed, to any identified cause (MMD 3992.530-32). In documents dated 18 Jumada-II 1117 [7 Sep. 1705] the extent of earthquake-related repairs at Egriboz is put at 10,253 cubits (MMD 9895.36-37; MMD 4355.318-20), a rather larger figure than before; since other contemporaneous repairs, such as the need for poles to repair the palisades at both Egriboz and Kara Baba castles (MMD 9895.124-25) are listed separately on these pages, we may be justified in assuming that further earthquakes had occurred since that recorded in the earlier document of 1701.
The extent of earthquake damage, though not the date on which it occurred, is confirmed in an account for the repairs which were finally carried out between 28 Jumada-II 1117 A.H. [19 Sep. 1705] and 28 Muharram 1118 A.H. [12 May 1706]: here, damage which occurred "after the earthquake" is recorded separately, with details being given of the extent of damage to named structures, and earthquake-related repairs actually carried out are thus shown to have totalled 9,662 cubits, only a little short of the estimate of 10,253 cubits; the cost of both earthquake-related and other repairs was c. 19,500 gurus (MMD 4355.325-26).
The Ottoman documents so far found which relate to earthquake activity in Egriboz at this time show, at the least, that there was a damaging earthquake here before late-May 1701, and possibly another soon after. The issue is obscured further by a document dated 22 Muharram 1112 A.H. [9 Jul. 1700] which refers to the need for repairs to damage to the foundations of Egriboz castle caused by the action of the sea and the hard winter (MMD 3134.40; MMD 3992.332): the absence of reference to earthquake damage here does not, however, imply that an earthquake must have occurred between mid-1700 and mid-1701.
It is possible, then, that the earthquake alluded to in these Ottoman documents is that of June 1694 reported in the European press. However, it is strange that the extent of the damage due to this event was still being estimated some seven years later. Early in 1694, the Venetians were again making raids into Negreponte territory, advancing as far as Livadia, before retreating finally in the Peloponessus by the middle of 1694 (Garzoni, 1705, p. 512); it is possible that the removal of the Venetian threat from this part of Greece after the middle of 1694, and the continuing hostilities elsewhere in the Empire hindered or delayed repairs to structures being weakened progressively through neglect, war action and earthquake shocks. It is also possible, however, that the details in these documents, written several years after the 1694 earthquake, may refer to cumulative damage caused by more than one event: our full understanding of the sequence must await the retrieval of further relevant documentation.
The earthquake of 1694 shook the whole island of Negreponte (Anonymous, 1694a), but no details are available for damage caused beyond the limits of the castle, where the shock apparently affected vulnerable structures already weakened by the siege of 1688. The shock does not seem to have been responsible for casualties or widespread destruction in the town of Negreponte itself. The absence of any mention of earthquake damage elsewhere by contemporary Venetian chroniclers in their accounts of their operations in Greece is, unless damage was very small, rather puzzling.

10) 1695
A great earthquake occurred in Egypt (Misr=Cairo?); people went into the open for three days until it ceased; some houses were destroyed (al-Umari, c. 221r). No contemporary source has been located for this event.

11) 1696 Sep. 4
An earthquake in the Ionian Islands, locally destructive in Zante, caused the collapse of houses and damage to churches and bell-towers. In Zante a few people were killed and many were injured (Katramis, 1880, p. 464).

12) 1696-97
At some time prior to 3 Dhu'l Qaada 1108 A.H. [24 May 1697] an earthquake damaged the castle of Ulgun (Ulcinj), which lies on the coast on the Yugoslav-Albanian border; the extent of the repairs was 6,685 cubits and the cost was put at some 5,000 gurus. Some parts of the castle were demolished. An earlier repair at Ulgun, dated 4 Rabi-I 1107 A.H. [13 Oct. 1695] makes no reference to an earthquake, and it is thus possible that the event occurred between 1 October 1695 and 24 May 1697 (MMD 3992.198-99).

13) 1697 Apr. 11
A strong earthquake, followed by many aftershocks, was reported from the region of Karlovac in Jugoslavia (Kispatic, 1891, p. 125).

14) 1698 Sep. 3
An earthquake was felt in the regions of Brasov and Sibiu in Romania (Rethly, 1952, s.a.).

15) 1698 Oct. 2
An earthquake was felt in Rosetta (Rashid) and Alexandria between 8 and 9 in the morning (Maillet, 1735). No contemporary source for this information has been identified.

16) 1698 Nov.
An earthquake at 7 in the night shook the monastery of Megalon Pylon (Doukissiou) near Trikala in central Greece (Lampros, 1910, p. 205).

17) 1698
During the year 1110 A.H. [10 Jul. 1698 - 28 Jun. 1699] an earthquake was felt in Istanbul (Katib, 1146 [1733], 144).

18) 1699 Feb. 16

An earthquake on the Adriatic coast of Jugoslavia destroyed a few houses at Zadar (Kispatic, 1891, p. 125).

19) 1699 Feb. 20
A destructive earthquake in Croatia ruined the towns of Veliki Kalinka, Medvedski Breg and Svetica, killing a few people. In the epicentral area the ground opened up in places and streams were dammed. The shock caused widespread damage within a radius of about 100 km, particularly to public buildings, churches and castles, as far as Agram (Zagreb). It was felt over a large area and followed by a short sequence of damaging aftershocks (Kispatic, 1891, p. 125).

20) 1700 Aug. 25
A damaging shock at Karlovac in Jugoslavia (Kispatic, 1891, p. 126).

21) 1701
A document dated 18 Dhu'l Hijja 1112 [26 May 1701] reports that 250 cubits of a wall in the inner castle of the castle of Foca-yi Atik (Foca) was damaged in an earthquake (MMD 3992.365; MMD 9889.336). This is perhaps the same earthquake which was felt strongly in Smyrna (Izmir) and dated vaguely by Kist (1847, p. 170) to 1700. It is not certain, however, whether this is also the same event referred to by Pinar & Lahn (1952) who, without quoting an authority, say that a shock was felt in Kutahya during the turn of the 17th century.

22) 1701 Mar. 19
A destructive shock at Berat in Albania. From a marginal note we learn that: "At night, towards dawn of Sunday, 8 March 7209 A.M. [19 March 1701], there was a great earthquake; it shattered churches and caused the collapse of many houses, churches, towers and castles, and in many places the earth was torn apart and water came out [from] the ground; and the shocks lasted 17 days" (Lampros, 1910, p. 206). We could find no other information about this event.

23) 1701 Apr. 5
This was probably a destructive aftershock of the earthquake of 19 March in Albania. The same marginal note from Berat adds: "On Annunciation day, at vespers, 25 March 7209 A.M. [5 April 1701], there was [another] great shock as a result of which the castle of Tepeleni collapsed killing 300 people; after this the shocks gradually ceased" (Lampros, 1910, p. 206).
This, or the shock of 19 March, was perhaps responsible for damaging the
Kasimiye mosque, formerly the church of S. Demetrius, in Thessaloniki. A document dated Jumada-II 1118 A.H. [Aug.-Sep. 1706] says: "The mosque known as the Kasimiye mosque in the centre of the city of Selanik was given new life in 898 A.H. by Sultan Bayazid; over the years there have been earthquakes, and a few years ago, the mihrab side was completely demolished - because the whole building was shaken, now the ends of the structure and its roof have fallen in and it is completely ruined and close to collapse; if [the damage is not rectified] the marbles will be broken and the lead coverings lost ..." (MMD 4355.394).

24) 1701 Jun. 12
A widely-felt earthquake caused extensive damage in Vallachia, Bessarabia and Transylvania. The shock occurred on Sunday morning; it was felt strongly at Izmail where it caused damage and perceived over a large area of Central Europe (Hakobyan, 1951, p. 285; Rethly, 1952, s.a.).

25) 1701
An earthquake at Blagaj in the region of Mostar in Jugoslavia. A document dated 17 Muharram 1113 A.H. [15 June 1701] reports that "... three corners of the dome of the mosque ordered built by Sultan Suleyman in the town of Balagay are cracked; also the lead-covered roof over [the dome] is opened by the wind and the covering of adjacent parts is also ruined; because repairs were not carried out it is possible that complete destruction will follow owing to the abundant rains ..." (MMD 9889.20). Documents dated 12 Jumada-I 1121 A.H. [20 Jul. 1709] refer also to the cracking of "three corners of the dome and the ruin of adjacent parts", but ascribes this damage to a "former earthquake" (MMD 3882.185; MMD 9899.237). It thus appears that earthquake damage prior to 15 June 1701 was not repaired until at least 1709. We could find no additional information about this event.

26) 1701
It is not certain whether in this year an earthquake was felt in Aleppo (Panzac, 1985, p. 38).

27) 1702 Feb. 25
A destructive earthquake in western Turkey: "In 1114 A.H. [28 May 1702-16 May 1703] there was a frightful earthquake in the kaza of Denizli and surrounding towns and villages; countless houses and shops and mescids were destroyed and people are living in tents ..." (Rasid, 1282 [1865], 2, p. 584).
Katib (1146 [1733], 145) says that the kaza of Denizli was ruined in an earthquake in Dhu'l-Hijja 1114 A.H. [Apr.-May 1703]. However, an eyewitness account places the earthquake precisely at 8.30, on the morning of 25 February 1702 (Lucas, 1731). It is said that 12,000 people were killed and that this, or another earthquake diverted the course of the Gumus Cay near Eskihisar (Pococke, 1745).
In Smyrna the shock was very violent. There was no damage in the city but elsewhere, another eyewitness says, it caused great destruction (Egmont & Heyman, 1759). The shock was strongly felt in Chios (Lucas, 1731). The difference of one year given by Ottoman and European sources is difficult to reconcile. However, there is no evidence for two different events, since Egmont, who was in Smyrna between 1700 and 1709, mentions only one.

28) 1703 Feb.
An earthquake in the region of the Gulf of Corinth caused damage to Inebahti (Nafpaktos). An order dated 19 Dhu'l-Qa'da 1114 A.H. [27 Apr. 1703] says: "Inebahti castle is an old structure and in the repeated earthquakes of the month of Ramadan the bastion in its middle level known as the Tekye Bastion has fallen down and the curtain walls on the right and left hand sides [of the towers] are cracked and on the west side of the upper castle the curtain walls known as divanhane and Yolma Kapu are cracked ..." (MMD 3992.520; MMD 2945.504). The dating of the earthquake to Ramadan 1114 A.H. [19 Jan.-16 Feb. 1703] is confirmed in another document concerning arrangements for the repair of the castle (MMD 4355.162; MMD 4355.116). Here, as at Negreponte (Egriboz) after the earthquake of 1694, the Ottomans took the opportunity to make good damage which had not been caused by the earthquake, as well as to build some new structures.

29) 1703 Nov. 19
An earthquake shock was felt at Brasov in Romania (Rethly, 1952, s.a.).

30) 1704 Nov. 22
This earthquake in the Ionian Islands was destructive in Lefkas. A contemporary account of the earthquake written in Lefkas says that "On 11 November 1704 [O.S.], Saturday night, which was the day of St. Minas, at one hour and a half of the night, there happened a terrifying earthquake in which all stone masonry houses in Amaxiki and a few made of bricks as well as the churches collapsed; only the church of St. Athanasius, which was made of timber, survived. Also, at Kastro a few houses collapsed and the rest were damaged; 13 people were killed at Amaxiki and 3 at Kastro and others were injured; similarly many houses collapsed in Fryni, and the earthquake was terrifying throughout the island of Lefkas, where a few monasteries and many houses in the villages collapsed and in [the church of] Sta Anastasia at Tsukalades, Athanasoula the wife of Michu Sofrona was killed; also the cells and bishopric and [the church of] of Panagia in Gyra fell; in particular, a house at Dragano sunk all into the ground so that only a few stones could be seen; and great destruction was wrought to the island of Sta Maura [Lefkas]; and after this earthquake there were many others for many days; and no one had experienced in the past such a destruction; there fell arcades and hazinades, and similarly at Peratia many houses collapsed; and the earthquake was felt in Arta, but it was not as strong as here, and at Korfus [Corfu] and Cefalinia where it was not so strong" (Sathas, 1867).
The earthquake almost totally ruined the church of Sta Maura in the castle of Lefkas which was later rebuilt by the Venetians (Vladis, 1902). Damage was concentrated in the island of Lefkas and along the opposite coast of mainland Greece, and did not extend very far (Codex VVA, c. 56v).

31) 1705 Apr. 7
An earthquake was felt at Brasov in Romania (Rethly, 1952, s.a.).

32) 1705 Aug. 8
Preceded by foreshocks an earthquake in Bursa, late in the afternoon, destroyed a dozen houses, without casualties (Lucas, 1712, 1, p. 98). It appears that this was a local shock, not felt very widely.

33) 1705 Sep. 3
Evidence for earthquake damage in Athens about the turn of the seventeenth century is found in a 4-page manuscript history of Athens, the so-called Anargyrian Fragments, published by Pittakis (1853). This, most probably 18th-century manuscript, the authenticity of which was in doubt (Zisiou, 1885), is made up of fragments of a history of Athens and contains two garbled passages about earthquake damage to the town. Unfortunately, events in this chronicle are not dated and they are hopelessly confused; later events are given first and a series of earlier events, running consecutively, are given later. Attempts to date the fragments in this chronicle and identify conclusively their sequence, have been so far unsuccessful (Kambouroglou, 1959, pp. 60-67).

The first page of the manuscript contains the following passage:
(a) "... and the citizens [of Athens] restored the south wall of the Fort, which the earthquakes had destroyed two years ago ...".
The second page ends with the following passage:
(b) "During this year there was a great earthquake, and all the houses were shaken, and the church of St. Dionysius was rent in two, and the upper story of the residence of the Metropolitan was destroyed by the fall of a boulder from the Rock above. This happened in the evening of St. Chariton's day; and many dwellings belonging to the monastery of Sotiros Nikodimou were overthrown, and the Vasiliki Ekklisia was cracked, and on the third day, in the cathedral [metropolis], Demetrios was struck dead by a thunderbolt" (Pittakis, 1853).
The year in which this happened is not given, but the context in which these events are recorded suggests that they must have taken place after the return of the Athenians to the town from their voluntary exile, about three years after the departure of the Venetians in 1688. The first passage clearly refers to repairs of the walls of the Fort (Acropolis) of Athens, and the second to the general effects, presumably of the same earthquake, which is dated on St. Chariton's day, that is on 28 September (Grumel, 1958). However, St. Chariton's day does not fix the date of the earthquake uniquely. In the menology of the Greek Church different sanctified Charitons are celebrated on different dates, viz. St. Chariton is celebrated on the 3rd as well as on 9 September; the two martyrs of the same name on 1 June and on 28 November, and Osios (Pious) Chariton on 28 September (Menologion, 1989).

Well before 1687, Athens had sunk to the status of a small country town with a population of about 10,000. In that year, the town was besieged by the Venetians and taken on 28 September. On this occasion the Acropolis was damaged and the Parthenon within largely destroyed by a shell which caused the explosion of the ammunition stores there (Lampros, 1926). Shortly afterwards, in April 1688, Athens was given up by the Venetians. The Turks re-entered but only after the inhabitants, who feared reprisals, had abandoned the town, taking refuge on nearby islands. Much of the countryside around Athens and the town itself continued to remain deserted for almost three years and people did not begin to return until December 1690 (Sathas, 1869, pp. 354-377).
Being aware of the confusions which are possible in the Fragments, we might wonder whether the disaster which, in this chronicle, has come to sound like an earthquake, might not actually have been originally the destruction caused by the Venetians during the siege of Athens, which would have struck the town almost as heavily as an earthquake. Also we might even wonder why the date of the event, reckoned from the second passage of the chronicle, i.e. 28 September, is the same as that of the surrender of Athens to the Venetians, a date perhaps associated with the damage sustained by the Acropolis during the siege (Dandolo, 1687). It is not possible to decide whether this dating of the earthquake is prejudiced by this event.
Thus recent writers, using some poetic licence in the interpretation of the very few elements in the Anargyrian Fragments, have deduced a variety of dates for this event. For instance Sieberg (1932, p. 77), and Galanopoulos (1956; 1961) give 1 June 1641; Schmidt (1879), Lambakis (1885) and Kambouroglou (1888) suggest 1 June 1651; Papazachos & Papazachou (1989) date it to 16 September 1694; Kambouroglou (1959, p. 62) gives 28 September 1701, Schmidt (1880) suggests some time between 1636 and 1660. Mommsen (1868) and Zisiou (1868), in contrast, dismiss altogether the evidence for an earthquake in Pittakis (1853) as a fabrication. In fact, the only real evidence in these Fragments for such an event suggests that the earthquake must have occurred sometime between 1687 and 1751 (Lampros, 1881). This we may surmise from the fact that the residence of the Metropolite was intact in 1676, when seen by Spon (1678), and also probably during the Venetian occupation of Athens, while in 1751 only the ruins of this building and the remains of the church of St. Dionysius could be seen (Stuart, 1789). It is quite clear that to fix the year of this earthquake requires information additional to that in the Anargyrian Fragments.
Such additional information is now provided by a series of unpublished Turkish documents that fix unambiguously the year of the earthquake, confirming at the same time that the passages referring to such an event in the Fragments are not a fabrication.
One of these documents, dated 7 Ramadan 1117 A.H. [23 Dec. 1705] states that the castle of Athens was damaged in an earthquake in 1117 A.H., as reported by the cadi of Athens on 16 Rajab 1117 A.H. [3 Nov. 1705] (MMD 4355.367): "Athens castle ... was this year damaged and ruined in an earthquake ..."; the earthquake may thus be dated to between 25 April (which fell on the first day of 1117 A.H.) and 3 November 1705. An estimate of the extent of the damage, 6,264 cubits, and the amount which it would cost to repair, 6,369 gurus, of which the Porte agreed to provide 4,000 gurus from central funds, was recorded in the registers of the central treasury on 4 Sha'ban 1119 A.H. [31 Oct. 1707]: "For the repair of some places and the cistern and the armoury inside the castle of Athens in the liva of Egriboz, which was earlier ruined and damaged by an earthquake ..."; it is further noted that the earthquake had ruined all but 5 or 6 of the 24 cisterns within the castle, and that because of continual pirate raids in the vicinity, the repair of all the earthquake damage was deemed of the utmost urgency (MMD 4355.447; MMD 3878.324). By 7 Rabi-II 1120 A.H. [26 Jun. 1708], repairs were complete (MMD 4355.447), according to strict specifications as to the local sources from which should be drawn materials and labour (MMD 3878.324).
It is clear therefore, that the earthquake occurred in 1705, probably on St. Chariton's day, that is 3 September which, in the old style, was a Thursday. We have chosen this date for St. Chariton's day because, if it be assumed that the very last phrase in the second page of the Anargyrian Fragments refers to a Sunday mass, St. Chariton's day should have been on a Thursday, the only one which fell before the month of Ramadan in the year 1117 A.H.
The shock caused considerable damage to various structures in the Acropolis as well in Athens, to buildings already weakened by the siege of 1687 and subsequently abandoned. Of the buildings affected by the earthquake in Athens, the church of St. Dionysius and the nearby residence of the Metropolitan, neither of which is extant, were located at the north foot of the rock of Areopagus (Lampros, 1881). The cells of the monastery of Nikodimou must have been located in the vicinity of the modern Russian church (Lambakis, 1885). The location of the Vasiliki Ekklisia is not certain: perhaps it was located near the Stadium (Lampros, 1881). There is no evidence that the earthquake caused any loss of life among the inhabitants and garrison of the Acropolis or serious damage in the town itself: the extract from the Fragments shows, for example, that the Cathedral of Athens must have survived the shock intact, since three days later it was safe enough to be used for congregation. The occurrence of an earthquake is not mentioned in the history of Athens written by the Ottoman cadi at the time (Orhonlu, 1974; Anonymous, 1705). Nor is any damage mentioned by a French traveller who was in Athens a year after the earthquake, between 27 June and 9 August 1706, and who found the town sparsely inhabited but prosperous; the ruins which he noticed, he attributed to the recent wars (Lucas, 1712, 1, p. 285): this confirms our impression that its effects were not serious for had there been serious damage due to an earthquake a year earlier, it is unlikely that it could have escaped him, and he would have recorded it, as he did for other places on his travels.
There is no reason to suppose, however, that other towns were not affected in this earthquake. It is possible that some of the damage reported from Negreponte at about the same time (MMD 9895.124, dated Sha'ban 1117 A.H. [Nov. 1705]), could have been the result of the same earthquake. However, damage in Negreponte cannot have been too serious, and was probably quickly repaired, as the same traveller, who was passing through Negreponte a year after the event, did not remark on it (Lucas, 1712, 1, pp. 281, 286).
Although some doubt must remain as to the actual date of the event, the year of the earthquake mentioned in the Anargyrian Fragments can now be fixed in 1705, and the epicentre of the event located somewhere between Athens and Negreponte, probably in the vicinity of Oropos, a location about 30 km distant from both Athens and Negreponte. Unfortunately, Venetian sources for this region become scarce after the Carlowitz treaty in 1699, and no information about this event so far has been found therein.
A shock reported from Zante in 1705 (Schmidt, 1867a), may well be a different event, belonging to the aftershock sequence of the earthquake of November 1704 in the Ionian islands.
However, the fact that as yet we have found no mention of an earthquake in 1705 in central Greece in the consular correspondence from towns in the Morea and neighbouring regions (Egina, Corinto, Napoli di Romania, Patrasso, Smyrna, Constantinople), as well as no mention in the European press, implies that perhaps the shock that affected Athens in 1705 was not felt very far and did not cause any great concern in nearby towns - in other words, that the 1705 earthquake was not a large magnitude event.

34) 1705 Nov. 24
This was a destructive earthquake with an epicentral region in the northern part of the Bekaa valley in Lebanon. It occurred on Tuesday night, 7 Sha'ban 1117 A.H. [24 Nov. 1705], and was preceded by a strong foreshock that caused panic in the area of Damascus. From an eyewitness in Jabal Qasyun in the Salihiyah we learn that "... several hours after the first shock that night a stronger earthquake occurred, driving us out into the yard where we heard the people of Damascus crying out ... it lasted for two or three minutes ... two or three minutes later a lighter shock occurred. Matters continued in this way until Ramadan began [17 Dec.], a light earthquake occurring every day and night, some people fleeing them and some not ... The second shock caused some houses to fall, destroyed walls, shook roofs and buildings in Damascus and its surrounding villages to such an extent that many people were killed in the debris. The top of the eastern minaret of the Umayyad Mosque was split and two stones fell from the top of the western minaret, but caused no damage. The upper portion of the Murshidiyah minaret fell in al-Salihiyah, as did the minaret of the al-Afram mosque and part of the buildings in Magharat al-Damm up on Jabal Qasyun ... We heard that the fortress of al-Qastal and its villages were destroyed; likewise a monastery [dair] in Yabrud, and many houses in the villages ..." (al-Nablusi, s.a.).
Damage extended to Tripoli. A first assessment of the effects of the earthquake there had reached Istanbul by 9 Ramadan 1117 A.H. [26 Dec. 1705] viz. "As the result of a great earthquake the roofs and walls of the city of Trablus-i Sham, and in the port, some of the walls of the towers of the coastal fort and some of the quarters of the garr [in] on therein are destroyed and urgently need repair ..." (MMD 4355.362; MMD 9895.191); the local estimate for the cost of repairs, nearly 7.500 gurus, was revised in Istanbul to 5,000 gurus for the 6 towers. A revised estimate of damage, which reached Istanbul by 16 Jumada-I 1120 A.H. [3 Aug. 1708], testifies that the sea towers were still "mostly leaning over ... because the earthquake demolished most parts of these structures and their foundations in the sea are gapped ..."; the reason for the delay to repairs was apparently that the money sent earlier had been sufficient only for 2 of the towers, and the structure had further deteriorated in the intervening period (MMD 4355.538). Later Arab writers who mention this earthquake refer only to the damage in the region of Damascus.

35) 1705
A violent earthquake in Smyrna caused great panic but no damage. The shock was strongly felt on board a ship anchored 15 miles offshore Smyrna (Izmir) (Forbin, 1748).

36) 1706 Dec. 26
A strong earthquake was felt in Konya early in the evening, causing some panic (Lucas, 1712, 1, p. 328). This may be the shock which, we learn from an order dated Dhu'l-Hijja 1121 [Feb. 1710], (badly) damaged the mosque of Daud Pasha in Ladik, the repair to which was delayed because permission was withheld by the administrators of its wakf, and funds had to be sought from the central treasury (MMD 3882.87). If so, this should have been a comparatively large earthquake in Anatolia about which more information is likely to be found.

37) 1706
During the year, repeated earthquake shocks were felt in Smyrna (Izmir) (Kist, 1847, s.a.).

38) 1707 May 18
Earthquake shocks began to be felt in the Aegean about this time, premonitory of the eruption of the volcano of Santorin (Thera). More violent shocks were felt on the 23rd with the commencement of the submarine eruption consequent on the raising of the island of Nea Kameni between Palaia and Micra Kameni. The sea was violently agitated by the upheaval of the new island, and Santorin was not entirely at rest until 1711, the volcanic action being particularly violent until May 1708 (Tarillon, 1714; Leycester, 1851). Strangely enough, the shocks were hardly perceptible 200 km away from the island (Anonymous, 1707, s.a.).

39) 1707 Jun. 2
This earthquake caused the collapse of some non-structural parts of the castle of Sedd ul-Bahr, in the Dardanelles (MMD 3882.56; MMD 7551.444; MMD 3882.58; MMD 9899.88).
The shock, which apparently had an offshore epicentre in the northern part of the Aegean Sea, was strongly felt in Smyrna (Izmir) (Kist, 1847, s.a.) and it may be the same event that was felt in other parts of Asia Minor (Beer, 1709, p. 1035) was perceptible in Istanbul (Rasid, 1282 [1865], 3, p. 222).

40) 1707 Jun. 6
Katramis (1880, p. 466) mentions an earthquake that caused considerable damage in Zante, followed by a stronger aftershock five days later. It ispossible that the shock felt in the island of Corfu some time in 1707 is due to the same earthquake (Beer, 1709, p. 1035). We could find no other sources for this event.

41) 1708 Feb. 9
The beginning of a long series of local earthquakes associated with the Santorin volcano, and continuing for a long time, (Tarillon, 1714; Leycester, 1851).

42) 1708
An earthquake was reported from Smyrna (Izmir) during the year (Kist, s.a.), probably associated with the activity of the Santorin volcano.

43) 1709 Jul. 3
An earthquake on Tuesday, 24 Rabi-II 1121 A.H. [3 Jul. 1709] destroyed the castle of Foca-yi Atik (Foca), northwest of Izmir; according to an official estimate of the extent of the damage sent to Istanbul, "6 towers and the walls of the castle ... on the west side between the great gate which is attached to the harbour wall and the cannonry, are completely collapsed and need rebuilding; the towers on each side of the great gate are also ruined, and by falling onto the mescid which is attached to this gate, have also ruined the mescid; and again, two towers of the wall between the gate of the inner castle and the great gate have collapsed, and the castle side of this wall, as far as its foundations, has fallen in towards the castle and ruined the hous[e]s opposite it; and the two towers of the inner castle where the commandant lives and where the arsenal will be stored have fallen, and since the walls have fallen onto the rooms, the commandant cannot live there; on the east side of the castle, most parts of the walls are ruined and both upper and lower parts of some of the towers are ruined [but] only the upper part of some others and they need repair; because the minaret of the mosque of Sultan Mehmed [II], above its balcony, fell onto the dome and the dome is cracked in several places and because the outer domes are ruined, it is impossible to perform the five prayers and the prayers are held outside the castle [or in the outer castle]; and the minaret of the mescid near the inner castle fell from its foundations up onto the mescid and the mescid is ruined; some of the 30 or 40 houses in the castle are ruined and others need repair; the castle is still not free of earthquakes, the people are all living outside the castle and they are in a parlous state ... repairs must be done this year ..." (CD, 1108).
Damage was put at 51,146 cubits, and was ordered to be paid for from local sources of state revenue (MMD 9899.329).
An earthquake shock felt in Smyrna (Izmir) during the year was probably associated with this event (Kist, 1847, s.a.).

44) 1709
The exact date of this apparently damaging earthquake in western Greece is not known. On 24 Rabi-II 1121 A.H. [3 Jul. 1709] an order was sent from Istanbul requiring an accurate estimate of the extent of earthquake damage to the castle of Dubnice, of which the Porte had earlier been apprised: "... because the previously-repaired west side of the castle of Dubnice, [which lies] on the border, in the sancak of Karli Ili, opposite Aya Mavra, was weak, ... the wall of the castle on that side was demolished in the great earthquake of this year [i.e. 1121 A.H.] ..."; the damaged area had at first been assessed at 160 cubits long and 15 wide (MMD 3882.176; MMD 9899.217). A later report, dated 27 Safar 1124 [31 Mar. 1712], shows that the castle had still not been repaired 3 years later (MMD 3882.176; MMD 3439.127).
In another imperial order, dated 18 Shawwal 1122 [10 Dec. 1711], we read: "... some parts of the mosque[s] built by Sultans Mehmed and Suleyman in the castle of the town of Kesriye were demolished in the earthquake of 1121 A.H. ..." (MMD 3882.271).
It seems then, that an earthquake, which apparently took place after 13 March and before 3 July 1709, caused damage to both the castle of Dubnice - which is modern Domnitsa, a location southwest of Agrafa, opposite Lefkas (Ott. Aya Mavra) - and to buildings in Kesriye - which is mod. Kastoria.
This should have been a relatively large earthquake with an epicentral region in the sparsely-populated region of the northern Pindos mountain.

45) 1710 Mar. 22
An earthquake was felt in in the region of Sofia (?), or Mt. Athos (?). The chronological elements in the marginal note which mentions this event, are confused. The date is given as A.M. 72187 March 11, a Tuesday midnight (Stojanovic, 1903): if we disregard the fifth number 7 added to the year, the date corresponds to 11 Mar. 1710 [O.S.] which was a Saturday. Years in which 11 March [O.S.] was a Tuesday were 1701, 1707, 1712 and 1718. Alternatively, this may be the event of 12 July 1709 described in a marginal note from the monastery of St. Panteleimon on Mt. Athos (Lampros, 1910, p. 216). No confirmation of this event in other sources has yet been found.

46) 1710 May 17
Just after midnight a very strong earthquake in Zante caused the collapse of many buildings and the loss of a few lives (Barbiani, 1863, s.a.). There is no evidence that the shock was felt elsewhere.

47) 1710 Aug. 27
An earthquake shock caused considerable concern in Cairo (ANP, 1710).

We would like to thank Dr. J. Vogt, Mr. P. Pantelopoulos and Ms. P. Albini for information. This work is supported by NERC/CEC and is part of the research project for the study of the seismicity of the Eastern Mediterranean region.

ANP (Archives Nationales, Paris) 1710. Affaires Etrangeres, BI/316.5.9.
Ambraseys, N., 1989. Temporary seismic quiescence: SE Turkey. Geophys. Journ., 96: 311-331.
Ambraseys, N. and Barazangi, M., 1989. The 1759 earthquake in the Bekaa Valley. Journ. Geophys. Res., 94: 4007-4013.
Ambraseys, N. and Melville, C., 1988. An analysis of the eastern Mediterranean earthquake of 20 May 1202. In: W.H.K. Lee (Editor), Historical Seismograms & Earthquakes of the World, Academic Press, pp. 181-200.
Anonymous, 1694a. In: Lettres Historiques, Sep. 1694, Paris.
Anonymous, 1694b. In: Mercure Historique et Politique, La Haye.
Anonymous, 1705. Tarih-i Medinet ul-Hukema. ms., Emanet Hazinesi 1411, Topkapi Sarayi, Istanbul.
Anonymous, 1707. ms., Jesuitica n. 616, Bayerisches Hauptstaatsarchiv, Münich.
Argentis, Ph. and Kyriakides, S., 1946. I Chios para geographois kai periigites. Athens.
Baratta, M., 1901. I Terremoti d'Italia. Saggio di Storia, Geografia e Bibliografia Sismica Italiana con 136 sismocartogrammi. Torino, 950 pp.
Barbiani, D.G., 1863. Mémoire sur les tremblements de terre dans l'ile de Zante. Mémoires de l'Académie des Sciences de Dijon, Dijon.
Beer, J.C., 1709. Neu-eroffnete Trauer-Buhne ... Nürnberg.
Boccone, P., 1697. Museo di fisica e di esperienze ... Venetia.
Bonito, M., 1691. Terra tremante overo continuatione de' terremoti dalla Creazione del Mondo fino al tempo presente Ö Napoli.
Careri, J., 1704. A voyage around the world. In: Churchill's Coll. Voyages, London.
CD (Cevdet Dahiliye), Basbakanlik Arsivi, Istanbul.
Codex VVA (Codex Vivliothikis Voulis Athenon), ms. n. 128.6, Parliament Library, Athens.
Dandolo, P., 1687. Ekthesis peri poliorkias ton Athinon ypo tou Morozini. In: Kataloipon Lamprou 159, Neos Hellinomnimon, Athens.
Egmont, A. and Heyman, J., 1759. Travels through part of Europe, Asia Minor, ... London.
Forbin, C., 1748. Mémoires du comte de Forbin. Amsterdam.
Galanopoulos, A., 1956. I seismiki epikindynotis ton Athinon. Praktika Akadem. Athenon, Athens.
Galanopolous, A., 1961. A catalogue of earthquakes of shocks for the years prior to 1800. Publ. Seism. Lab. Univ. Athens, Athens.
Garzoni, P., 1705. Istoria della Republica di Venezia in tempo della sacra lega contra Maommeto IV ... , 1, Venezia.
Grumel, V., 1958. Traite d'etudes byzantines; la chronologie. Bibl. Byzantine, Paris.
Hakobyan, V.A., 1951-56. Manr zhamanakagrut'yunner XIII-XVIII dd. 2 vv., Erivan.
IEN (Ibn ul-Emin), Nafia, Basbakanlik Arsivi, Istanbul.
Kambouroglou, D., 1888. Seismoi en Athinais, Vyzantinon Imerologion. Th. Mangakis, Athens.
Kambouroglou, D., 1959. Historia ton Athinon. 1, Athens.
Katib Celebi, 1146 [1733]. Takvim ut-tevarih, Istanbul.
Katramis, N., 1880. Philologika analekta Zakinthou. Zakinthos.
Kispatic, M., 1891. Potresi u Hrvatskoj. Rad Jugosl. Akad. Znan. Umjetn., Zagreb.
Kist, N.C., 1847. Kerkelijke aanteekeningen rakende de Nederlandsche Gereformeerde Gemeente te Smirna. Archief voor Kerkelijke Gesch. van Nederland, The Hague.
Lambakis, G., 1885. O naos tou Nikodimou. Hevdomas, 2, 91, Athens.
Lampros, S., 1881. Seismoi en Athinais pro tou 1821. Periodikon Hestia, Athens.
Lampros, S., 1910. Enthymiseon syllogi proti. Neos Hellinomnimon, Athens.
Lampros, S., 1926. Ekthesis peri poliorkias ton Athinon ypo tou Morozioni. Neos Hellinomnimon, Athens.
Leycester, E.M., 1851. Some account of the volcanic group of Santorin. Journ. R. Geogr. Soc., London, 20: 11-38.
Locatelli, A., 1705. Historia della Veneta guerra in Levante contro l'impero Ottomano... fino l'anno 1699. Colonia.
Lucas, P., 1712. Voyage du sieur Paul Lucas dans la Grece, l'Asie Mineur, ... 1, Paris.
Lucas, P., 1731. Voyage du sieur Paul Lucas au Levant. 2, Paris.
Maillet, ?. de, 1735. Description de l'Egypte. Paris.
Mallet, R., 1853. Third Report on the facts of Earthquakes Phenomena, Catalogue of recorded Earthquakes from 1606 B.C. to A.D. 1850. Report of the 22nd Meeting of the British Association for the Advancement of Science, London, 1-176.
MMD (Maliyeden Mudevver Defterler), Basbakanlik Arsivi, Istanbul.
Menologion of Megas Hieros Synekdimos, 1989. Zoi, Athens.
Mommsen, A., 1868. Athenae Christianae. Weimar.
al-Nablusi. In: Muhammad Muti' al-Hafiz "Nusus ghayr manshura 'an al-zalazil", Bull. Etudes Orient., Damascus, [1980-81] 1982, 32-33, pp. 256-64.
Orhonlu, C., 1974. Bir Turk kadisinin yazdigi Atina Tarihi (Tarih-i Medinetu'l-hukema). Guney-Dogu Avrupa Arastirmalari Dergisi, Istanbul, 2: 119-36.
Panzac, D., 1985. La peste dans l'Empire Ottoman 1700-1850. Leuven.
Papazachos, B. and Papazachou, K., 1989. Oi seismoi tis Helladas. Thessaloniki.
Perrey, A., 1850. Mémoire sur les tremblements de terre dans la peninsule Turco-Hellenique. Mémoire couronnés et mémoires des savants étrangers, Académie Royale de Belgique, XXIII, Bruxelles.
Pinar, N. and Lahn, E., 1952. Turkiye depremleri izahli katalogu. Yapi & Imar Isleri Reisligi, Seri 6, Sayi 36, Bayindirlik Bak., Ankara.
Pittakis, K., 1853. Apospasma ek tou cheirographou tis historias ton Athinon. Archaeologiki Ephimeris, 942-45, Athens.
Pococke, R., 1745. A description of the East. London.
Rasid, 1282 [1865]. Mehmed Tarih-i Rasid. 2-3, Istanbul .
Rethly, A., 1952. A Karpatmedencek foldrengesei. Akad. Kiado, Budapest.
Sathas, C.N., 1867. Mesaionikon seismologion tis Hellados; Cephalinia kai Leukas. Aion, 2225, Athens. Sathas, C.N., 1869. Tourkokratoumeni Hellas, 1453-1821. Athens.
Schmidt, J.F., 1867a. Pragmatia peri tou genomenou to 1867 seismou tis Kephalinias. Athens.
Schmidt, J.F., 1867b. Pragmatia peri tou genomenou seismou tou Aigiou. Athens.
Schmidt, J.F., 1879. Studien ueber Erdbeben. Leipzig.
Schmidt, J.F., 1880. Vulkaneruptionen und Erdbeben. Archiv für mittel- und neugriechische Philologie, Leipzig.
Sieberg, A., 1932. Die Erdbeben. In: B. Gutenberg (Editor), Handbuch der Geophysik. Berlin, 4, pp. 1-319.
Spon, J., 1678. Voyage d'Italie, de Dalmatie, de Grece, et du Levant, fait aux annees 1675 et 1676. Lyon.
Stojanovic, L., 1903. Stari srpski zapisi i natpisi. Zborn. Srpsk. K. Akad. Istor., Beograd.
Stuart, J., 1789. The antiquities of Athens ... London.
Tarillon, Pr., 1714. Relation ... de la nouvelle isle sortie de la mer dans le golfe de Santorine. Nouveaux mémoires missions Compagn. Jesu. Levant, Paris.
Theatrum Europaeum, 1698. 13, Frankfurt.
Tsitselis, H., 1960. Kefalliniaka symmikta. Argostoli.
al-Umari, Yasin al-Khatib Al-athar al-jaliya fil'l-hawadith al-ardiya, ms. (no nr.) Iraq Academy, Baghdad.
Vladis, S., 1902. I Leukas; historikon dokimion. Leukas.
Zisiou, K., 1868. Symmikta. Athens.
Zisiou, K., 1885. Erimoseos ton Athinon en eti 1688-1690. Hevdomas for 1885, Athens.

[Vol.1] [Vol.2] [Deliverables and queries] [Presentation] [Homepage]